Related Links :
Home Pregnancy Test |
First Visit To Doctor |
Confirmatory Tests |
Role of Sonography |
Calculation of Due Date
Any woman who is sexually active and is not using protection can become pregnant.
This section will help you to know for sure if you are pregnant.
Symptoms: (What you feel).
Other bodily changes are:
- Delayed period (amenorrhoea): If your menses are delayed more than 10 days beyond the due date, with previous periods being regular and you have been sexually active, there is a very good chance of you having become pregnant.
- "Morning sickness" (nausea): feeling sick, or vomiting in the morning (give a link for reasons).
- Breast changes: Fullness, prickling sensations and heaviness in breasts is common. Your breasts may feel painful to touch also.
- Urine problems: Feeling like urinating more often.
- Tiredness (fatigue): feeling unusually tired and lethargic.
- Food fads: Traditionally the image of a woman eating pickle /"imli" or other sour foods has been used to suggest pregnancy in Indian movies. There is some basis to this, as most women develop strong likes and dislikes for various food items in pregnancy. Rarely, there could also be craving for unusual thing such as mud.
- Increased vaginal discharge.
- Mood changes.
- Excessive salivation.
Home Pregnancy Tests:
Advances in laboratory testing have now reached a stage where we have access to easy-to-use reliable pregnancy test kits over the counter
In pregnancy, the growing tissues of the new conception (early foetus) secrete a special hormone into your body called ‘human Chorionic Gonadotrophin’ (hCG). This enters your blood as early as one week following fertilisation. This can be traced from your blood or urine by special tests. Home tests are done with urine.
- TDepending upon the type and sensitivity of the test used, pregnancy can be detected as early as a day or two from the missed period.
Tests currently available include:
- In the first week (within 7 days of missed periods)
Both these tests use the principle of 2 colored bands appearing if you are pregnant and only one band appearing if you are not
Pregcolor card (used extensively in India)
- Velocit one step pregnancy test
- Within 2 weeks of missed period:
These tests need a higher level of hCG before they become positive. Hence they become positive after five weeks from the last menstrual period.
- Pregcolour bottle
- Granindex slide test
Points to Note:
For best results, you must take care that
It may happen that a test result comes negative although you may be, in reality pregnant. This is more likely if:
- Urine is collected in a clean, dry container.
- Early morning sample of urine is preferred.
- A fresh sample is preferable
It is always advisable to confirm the pregnancy diagnosis by a qualified medical practitioner as all tests have their limitations.
- Your cycles are irregular or are often delayed.
- The testing has been done very early in pregnancy.In such cases, if the test is repeated after one week, it may become positive.
First Visit to Doctor:
As discussed earlier, you may feel certain changes in your body, which tell you that you are pregnant. You may have done a home test to find out. However, it is good to consult a doctor to be sure. This is how your doctor can help you.
Signs ( What the Gynaecologist sees / feels)
There various subtle changes in your body in pregnancy, which can be assessed before there are obvious physical changes.
- Pulse rate goes up by 10 – 15 beats / minute.
- Skin pigmentation increases. You may have a darker colored "butterfly" distribution rash on the face (chloasma).Using a sun protection cream may reduce the pigmentation.
- Blood pressure tends to go low.
discharge (leucorrhoea) is common.
discoloration of vagina and cervix due to congestion.
The cervix and uterus
The uterus gradually starts increasing in size as pregnancy advances. However, it is difficult even for an experienced Gynaecologist, to definitely confirm pregnancy only by uterine size before 6 weeks from the last period. It is only after 3 months that the uterus can be felt on abdominal examination. Before that, an internal check-up is necessary.
Tests advised by Doctor:
examining you, your doctor may feel that certain tests need to
be done. In particular, for early pregnancy you may be advised
to do the following tests:
- Serum beta - hCG: to
confirm the pregnancy if urine testing is not conclusive, or
help to decide the further treatment in case of
complications, Such as presence of bleeding / spotting in
- Sonography: This
test is very useful for various gynaecological conditions,
of Sonography in Confirming Pregnancy :
How soon can you
sonography, scanning is done through a full bladder
to see the uterus. Depending on the machine and operator’s
experience, you can usually find
- A small echodense ring
( gestational /pregnancy sac in which the foetus is
suspended or enclosed ) by 6 weeks,
- See foetal echoes
within the gestational sac by 8 weeks latest.
sonography, The resolution is better and pregnancy
can be picked up earlier, as early as 4 and half weeks.
Is it necessary in all
Not necessary if:
May be necessary if:
Your periods are
You are not sure of
Your doctor feels it
You have any bleeding
after missing a period.
There is doubt about
whether the pregnancy is growing well.
There is suspicion of
abnormal pregnancy especially ectopic or extra uterine
Calculation of Due
Once you are sure
you are pregnant, the question that comes to your mind, often,
is when are you likely to deliver.There are various ways to
estimate the due date, but you must remember that it is never
absolutely a certain date. Although majority of women will
deliver within a week before or after the due date, there may
be variations Link to pre-term labour and
prolonged labour in Abnormal deliveries
- Naegles rule: For a
woman with regular 28 day cycles, the expected due date
(EDD) can be calculated by adding 9 calendar months and 7
days to the first day of the last menstural period
10-06-1999 -------- EDD 17-03-2000
If your cycles are
regular, but either more or less than 28 days, you can
calculate the date by adjusting the difference from
10-06-1999, cycles 30 days = EDD 19-03-2000
cycles 25 days = EDD 01-07-2000
Your doctor will
usually use this formula and calculate your date, so do not
worry if your maths is not good.
We will help you
calculate it too!!